Chicks of domesticchickensprefer to be near large groups of objects that they have imprinted on. This behaviour was used to determine that very young chicks of a few days old have rudimentary counting skills. In a series of experiments, they were made to imprint on plastic balls and could figure out which of two groups of balls hidden behind screens had the most balls.
Birds that are hatched in captivity have no mentor birds to teach them traditional migratory routes. DArrigo had one solution to this problem. The chicks hatched under the wing of his glider and imprinted on him. Then, he taught the fledglings to fly and to hunt. The young birds followed him not only on the ground (as with Lorenz) but also in the air as he took the path of various migratory routes. He flew across theSaharaand over theMediterranean SeatoSicilywitheagles, fromSiberiatoIran(5,500km) with a flock ofSiberian cranes, and overMount EverestwithNepaleseeagles. In 2006, he worked with acondorin South America.
Encyclopedia of Microcomputers: Geographic information system to hypertext
Freud, S. (1913) Totem and Taboo in The Standard edition of the Complete Psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Vol XIII
In the case of the Israeli kibbutzim (collective farms), children were reared somewhat communally in peer groups, based on age, not biological relation. A study of the marriage patterns of these children later in life revealed that out of the nearly 3,000 marriages that occurred across the kibbutz system, only fourteen were between children from the same peer group. Of those fourteen, none had been reared together during the first six years of life. This result provides evidence not only that the Westermarck effect is demonstrable but that it operates during the period from birth to the age of six.However, Eran Shor and Dalit Simchai claimed that the case of the kibbutzim actually provides little support for the Westermarck effect.
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Inhumancomputer interaction,baby duck syndromedenotes the tendency for computer users to imprint on the first system they learn, then judge other systems by their similarity to that first system.The result is that users generally prefer systems similar to those they learned on and dislike unfamiliar systems.The issue may present itself relatively early in a computer users experience, and it has been observed to impede education of students in new software systems or user interfaces.
Orbituary: Angelo dArrigo The Guardian online, 1 April 2006
Devine, Ann (19942013).Peregrine Falcon Dispersal and Habitat Imprinting
American cootmothers have the ability to recognize their chicks by imprinting on cues from the first chick that hatches. This allows mothers to distinguish their chicks from parasitic chicks.
Tom J. van Weert; Robert K. Munro (28 February 2003).
. CRC Press. p.82.ISBN978-0-8247-2707-9.
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Spain, David H. (1987). The WestermarckFreud Incest-Theory Debate: An Evaluation and Reformation.
Dobbin, Muriel (April 24, 1975). D.C. zoo encourages giant pandas to observe nations birth with own.
Modern Captive BreedingPart II Falconry related information, laws, supplies for sale.
Reversesexual imprinting is also seen in instances where two people who live in domestic proximity during the first few years in the life of either one become desensitized to later closesexual attraction. This phenomenon, known as theWestermarck effect, was first formally described byin his bookThe History of Human Marriage(1891). The Westermarck effect has since been observed in many places and cultures, including in thesystem, and the Chineseshim-pua marriagecustoms, as well as in biological-related families.
When proximity during thiscritical perioddoes not occurfor example, where a brother and sister are brought up separately, never meeting one anotherthey may find one another highly sexually attractive when they meet as adults.This phenomenon is known asgenetic sexual attraction. This observation supports the hypothesis that the Westermarck effect evolved because it suppressedinbreeding. This attraction may also be seen withcousin couples.
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Paul, Robert A. (1988). Psychoanalysis and the Propinquity Theory of Incest Avoidance.
Sexual attraction to humans can develop in non-human mammals or birds as a result of sexual imprinting when reared from young by humans. One example is London Zoo female. When taken toMoscow Zoofor mating with the male giant panda An An, she refused his attempts to mate with her, but made a full sexual self-presentation to a zookeeper.
. Springer. pp.121122.ISBN978-1-4020-7363-2.
The Italianhang-gliderpilotAngelo dArrigoextended this technique. DArrigo noted that the flight of a non-motorisedhang-glideris very similar to the flight patterns of migratory birds; both use updrafts of hot air (thermal currents) to gain altitude that then permits soaring flight over distance. He used this fact to enable the re-introduction into the wild ofthreatened speciesofraptors.
. Advances in the Study of Behavior.New YorkAcademic Press.
Rugani, Rosa; Fontanari, Laura; Simoni, Eleonora; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio (2009-04-01).Arithmetic in newborn chicks.
Nancy T. Burley, a researcher into imprinting in zebra finches
It commonly occurs infalconrybirds reared from hatching by humans. Such birds are called imprints in falconry. When an imprint must be bred from, the breeder lets the male bird copulate with his head while he is wearing a special hat with pockets on tocatch the male birds semen. Then he courts a suitable imprint female bird (including offering food, if it is part of that speciess normalcourtship). At copulation he puts the flat of one hand on her back to represent the weight of a male bird, and with the other hand uses apipette, or ahypodermic syringewithout a needle, to squirt the semen into hercloaca.[bettersourceneeded]
The Way of the Panda: The Curious History of Chinas Political Animal.
Immelmann, Klaus (1972). Sexual and other long-term aspects of imprinting in birds and other species.
Theperegrine falconhas also been known to imprint on specific structures for their breeding grounds such as cliff sides and bridges and thus will favour that location for breeding.
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The filial imprinting of birds was a primary technique used to create the movieWinged Migration(Le Peuple Migrateur), which contains a great deal of footage of migratory birds in flight. The birds imprinted on handlers, who wore yellow jackets and honked horns constantly. The birds were then trained to fly along with a variety of aircraft, primarilyultralights.
The best-known form of imprinting isfilial imprinting, in which a young animal acquires several of its behavioural characteristics from its parent. It is most obvious innidifugousbirds, which imprint on their parents and then follow them around.It was first reported in domesticchickens, by the 19th-century amateur biologistDouglas Spalding. It was rediscovered by the early ethologistOskar Heinroth, and studied extensively and popularized by his discipleKonrad Lorenzworking withgreylag geese.
Sigmund Freudargued that as children, members of the same family naturally lust for one another, making it necessary for societies to createincest taboos,but Westermarck argued the reverse, that the taboos themselves arise naturally as products of innate attitudes.Steven Pinkerhas written that Freuds conception of an urge to incest may have derived from Freuds own erotic reaction to his mother as a boy (attested in Freuds own writings), and speculates that Freuds reaction may have been due to lack of intimacy with his mother in early childhood, as Freud waswet-nursed.
Cardoso, SH and Sabbatini, RME.Learning who is your mother. The behavior of imprinting.
is any kind of phase-sensitivelearning(learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviour. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be imprinted onto the subject. Imprinting is hypothesized to have acritical period.
Allen Kent; James G. Williams; Rosalind Kent (21 June 1991).
Debra Lieberman,John ToobyandLeda Cosmides. Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest. Accepted for publication in
Lorenz demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called acritical periodbetween 1316 hours shortly after hatching. For example, the goslings would imprint on Lorenz himself (to be more specific, on his wading boots), and he is often depicted being followed by a gaggle ofgeesewho had imprinted on him. Lorenz also found that the geese could imprint on inanimate objects. In one notable experiment, they followed a box placed on a model train in circles around the track.Filial imprinting is not restricted to non-human animals that are able to follow their parents, however.
Shor, Eran; Simchai, Dalit (2009). Incest Avoidance, the Incest Taboo, and Social Cohesion: Revisiting Westermarck and the Case of the Israeli Kibbutzim.
Sexual imprintingis the process by which a young animal learns the characteristics of a desirable mate. For example, malezebra finchesappear to prefer mates with the appearance of the female bird that rears them, rather than that of the birth parent when they are different.
Baby duck syndrome: Imprinting on your first system makes change a very hard thing, Peter Seebach,
Sexual imprinting on inanimate objects is a popular theory concerning the development ofsexual fetishism. For example, according to this theory, imprinting on shoes or boots (as withKonrad Lorenzs geese) would be the cause ofshoe fetishism.
T.L. Brink. (2008) Psychology: A Student Friendly Approach. Unit 12: Developmental Psychology. pp. 268
Open Road Media,ISBN978-1-4532-1773-3
. Studies in anthropology.New YorkAcademic PressISBN0-12-639460-1LCCN81006552.
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In a similar project, orphanedCanada geesewere trained to their normal migration route by the Canadian ultralight enthusiastBill Lishman, as shown in the fact-based movie dramaFly Away Home.
(5): 623635, 643645.doi10.1086/203603JSTOR2743359.
November 2002. Available online atCiteseer